Modern Western society is chiefly based on humanism which is described by a Longman dictionary I possess as "a system of beliefs and standards concerned with the needs of people and not with religious ideas". In other words, the immediate and often subjective concerns of human beings are considered more important than objective reality and any system of religious beliefs. When you keep this in mind, you'll begin to understand the roots of some problems which plague the modern Western society.
Christian preachers used to teach that holiness or salvation existed outside of man, not within, while humanism searches for the ultimate good within a person, hence the belief that human nature could be improved by progress and education. However, in my opinion, humanism also directly opposes any system based on idealism, since such a system will hold (some) ideas and concepts higher than the material needs of the people and worthy to sacrifice one's life for, if necessary.
A society based on the concept that material needs are everything that matters will inevitably grow more nihilistic and hedonistic as it will basically teach its citizens that eating, drinking and having fun is the most important thing in life and will ridicule such abstract concepts as "duty", "honour" or "patriotism" since they exist outside of man.
Idealism has dangers of its own since it can breed fanatics ready to kill and die for something they hold dear, and it could very well be that modern materialistic hedonism is the reaction to the 19th century idealism which brought us revolutions and two most horrible world wars, and yet I'm not sure that nihilism is a good substitute or that such a society can survive for a long time.
Since I now have new readers I'd like to repost one of my favourite poems by Robert Service which illustrates the point I'm trying to make. The hero of it is not a believer yet he has a concept of honour, which exists outside of himself, and his adherence to it outweighs his desire to save his life:
Soldier Of Fortune
"Deny your God!" they ringed me with their spears;
Blood-crazed were they, and reeking from the strife;
Hell-hot their hate, and venom-fanged their sneers,
And one man spat on me and nursed a knife.
And there was I, sore wounded and alone,
I, the last living of my slaughtered band.
Oh sinister the sky, and cold as stone!
In one red laugh of horror reeled the land.
And dazed and desperate I faced their spears,
And like a flame out-leaped that naked knife,
And like a serpent stung their bitter jeers:
"Deny your God, and we will give you life."
Deny my God! Oh life was very sweet!
And it is hard in youth and hope to die;
And there my comrades dear lay at my feet,
And in that blear of blood soon must I lie.
And yet . . . I almost laughed -- it seemed so odd,
For long and long had I not vainly tried
To reason out and body forth my God,
And prayed for light, and doubted -- and denied:
Denied the Being I could not conceive,
Denied a life-to-be beyond the grave. . . .
And now they ask me, who do not believe,
Just to deny, to voice my doubt, to save
This life of mine that sings so in the sun,
The bloom of youth yet red upon my cheek,
My only life! -- O fools! 'tis easy done,
I will deny . . . and yet I do not speak.
"Deny your God!" their spears are all agleam,
And I can see their eyes with blood-lust shine;
Their snarling voices shrill into a scream,
And, mad to slay, they quiver for the sign.
Deny my God! yes, I could do it well;
Yet if I did, what of my race, my name?
How they would spit on me, these dogs of hell!
Spurn me, and put on me the brand of shame.
A white man's honour! what of that, I say?
Shall these black curs cry "Coward" in my face?
They who would perish for their gods of clay --
Shall I defile my country and my race?
My country! what's my country to me now?
Soldier of Fortune, free and far I roam;
All men are brothers in my heart, I vow;
The wide and wondrous world is all my home.
My country! reverent of her splendid Dead,
Her heroes proud, her martyrs pierced with pain:
For me her puissant blood was vainly shed;
For me her drums of battle beat in vain,
And free I fare, half-heedless of her fate:
No faith, no flag I owe -- then why not seek
This last loop-hole of life? Why hesitate?
I will deny . . . and yet I do not speak.
"Deny your God!" their spears are poised on high,
And tense and terrible they wait the word;
And dark and darker glooms the dreary sky,
And in that hush of horror no thing stirred.
Then, through the ringing terror and sheer hate
Leaped there a vision to me -- Oh, how far!
A face, Her face . . . through all my stormy fate
A joy, a strength, a glory and a star.
Beneath the pines, where lonely camp-fires gleam,
In seas forlorn, amid the deserts drear,
How I had gladdened to that face of dream!
And never, never had it seemed so dear.
O silken hair that veils the sunny brow!
O eyes of grey, so tender and so true!
O lips of smiling sweetness! must I now
For ever and for ever go from you?
Ah, yes, I must . . . for if I do this thing,
How can I look into your face again?
Knowing you think me more than half a king,
I with my craven heart, my honour slain.
No! no! my mind's made up. I gaze above,
Into that sky insensate as a stone;
Not for my creed, my country, but my Love
Will I stand up and meet my death alone.
Then though it be to utter dark I sink,
The God that dwells in me is not denied;
"Best" triumphs over "Beast", -- and so I think
Humanity itself is glorified. . . .
"And now, my butchers, I embrace my fate.
Come! let my heart's blood slake the thirsty sod.
Curst be the life you offer! Glut your hate!
Strike! Strike, you dogs! I'll not deny my God."
I saw the spears that seemed a-leap to slay,
All quiver earthward at the headman's nod;
And in a daze of dream I heard him say:
"Go, set him free who serves so well his God!"
As a P.S. I'd like to add that I took some pictures to add to my previous post on different clothes styles but by some reason, can't upload them now, so I'll try to do it later.