Here is a decent article by Dr Axe, whose book on Aromatherapy I highly recommend, btw.
It's quite long, but worth reading. I should add that personally I can't eat soy products whether fermented or not without it wreaking havoc on my system and my husband dislikes them so we never eat them, but beans, lentils and nuts are OK.
Considering his worst substitutes, I tried to make seitan at home several times, and it was just not eatable, but I somewhat disagree about cheese. I think It's OK if you don't go overboard on it. but it's probably the best to combine several different protein sources in one dish, like some cheese and nuts.
He also doesn't mention eggs by some reason, but the Dutch Veg society suggests that you could substitute 3 oz meat with 2 eggs, which is more or less adequate, in my experience.
There is a discussion going on about health benefits of eggs, but the general consensus seems to be that 6 or 7 eggs a week is fine, especially if you go easy on red meat.
(The Dutch Vegetarian society, btw, also recommends about 0.5 lt dairy a day for your b12 and calcium).
Anyway, meals should be built around a protein source, so broccoli and carrots aren't a good meat substitute, they are a side dish:)